TL;DR - I don't have to go through every mass shooter, VET the actions of the shooter (did they try to shoot it out with police, did they not?)

None of that.

What I believe you may suffer from is confirmation bias based on a lot of memes floating around.

I again refer to the multitude of studies on overall fatal use of force that indicates no racial bias (or no proof of racial bias) in shootings by police. Feel free to cherry pick your own examples and ignore.

Or at least send me one study to back up your claims.

Good day.

From here (sent earlier):

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kVlyqqLFT3mFlCc5pNM6iiqBcGLhX2r1V52VFm_ZGZE/edit

Here are 10 studies indicating blacks are NOT likely to be injured or shot more often than whites or other racial groups by police:

#1

NEW July 2019 study:

https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/07/16/1903856116 (“Officer characteristics and racial disparities in fatal officer-involved shootings”)

EXCERPT: “We find no evidence of anti-Black or anti-Hispanic disparities across shootings.” And: “As the proportion of White officers in a fatal officer-involved shooting increased, a person fatally shot was not more likely to be of a racial minority.”

RELATED STORY: https://theconversation.com/our-database-of-police-officers-who-shoot-citizens-reveals-whos-most-likely-to-shoot-119623

#2

NEW June 2018:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/puar.12956 (“Do White Law Enforcement Officers Target Minority Suspects?”)

EXCERPT: “Less than 1 percent of the victims of police killing in our data were unarmed.”

#3

NEW June 2018:

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1948550618775108 (“Is There Evidence of Racial Disparity in Police Use of Deadly Force? Analyses of Officer-Involved Fatal Shootings in 2015–2016”) - Full paper (says 2019 for print): https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/b44013_a5fc6189326849fab031bc3fedae7c3d.pdf

ALSO: Author’s earlier analysis: https://www.cesariolab.com/race-bias-in-shooting

RELATED: “Supplemental Material #2: Why Biased Policing Does Not Account for the Results” https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/b44013_23920f7547cc4b019b3aa915cf7e18de.pdf

#4

http://www.nber.org/papers/w22399 (Roland Fryer at Harvard: “An Empirical Analysis of Racial Differences in Police Use of Force”; See also Fryer’s 2018 follow-up article to the same study titled “Reconciling Results on Racial Differences in Police Shootings” where he reiterates that “blacks are 27.4% less likely to be shot at by police relative to non-black, non-Hispanics” https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/fryer/files/fryer_police_aer.pdf)

#5

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/1745-9133.12269 (“A Bird’s Eye View of Civilians Killed by Police in 2015” Criminology and Public Policy)

#6

http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/early/2016/07/27/injuryprev-2016-042023 (Injury and Prevention: “Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets”)

#7

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2870189 (College of William and Mary Department of Economics and the Crime Prevention Research Center: “Do White Police Officers Unfairly Target Black Suspects?”)

EXCERPT: “When either the violent crime rate or the demographics of a city are accounted for, we find that white police officers are not significantly more likely to kill a black suspect … We find no evidence that body cameras affect either the number of police killings or the racial composition of those killings.”

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#8

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9133.12187/abstract (Washington State‪ University‬ shooting study showing police shoot unarmed whites more in training than unarmed blacks DESPITE showing greater implicit bias against blacks: “The Reverse Racism Effect”)

#9

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1745-9133.12174 (“Race, Crime, and the Micro‐Ecology of Deadly Force.”) says, “The results indicate that neither the racial composition of neighborhoods nor their level of economic disadvantage directly increase the frequency of police shootings.” Study co-author David Klinger, PhD, a Professor of Criminology & Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri–St. Louis said on CNN with host Anderson Cooper rebutting sociologist Michael Eric Dyson, “There’s absolutely no empirical evidence from the field that indicates that police are quicker on the trigger when it’s a black suspect versus a white suspect.”

#10

BONUS: 10th study from University of Chicago: https://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/bernd.wittenbrink/research/pdf/cpjwsk07.pdf

“In terms of bias, the SDT results suggest that officers may show less bias than civilians in their final decisions. Among the community sample, these data revealed a clear tendency to set a lower (i.e., more lenient or “trigger-happy”) criterion for Black, rather than White, targets. But this bias was weaker, or even nonexistent, for the officers. The reduction in bias seemed to reflect the fact that, compared with the community members, officers set a higher, more stringent threshold for the decision to shoot Black targets. Placement of the criterion for White targets varied minimally across the three samples.”

#11 - from Heather Mac Donald’s reporting on June 2, 2020

https://www.phillypolice.com/assets/directives/cops-w0753-pub.pdf

https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-myth-of-systemic-police-racism-11591119883?fbclid=IwAR0QXw5Rq0WVD6ga9yjHn2dLDZiK9mgrRQdI6tyxjV7A5Lym7WkUWV26VI8

“A 2015 Justice Department analysis of the Philadelphia Police Department found that white police officers were less likely than black or Hispanic officers to shoot unarmed black suspects.”

Mac Donald also points out that there’s 375 million interactions between law enforcement and the public, showing that unjustified shootings are statistically a non-event.

Writer. Researcher. Designer. Human seeking better outcomes. Also searching for relevant facts and logical arguments above expedient or politial narratives.

Writer. Researcher. Designer. Human seeking better outcomes. Also searching for relevant facts and logical arguments above expedient or politial narratives.